Autumn work in the country: how to properly prepare the garden and garden for winter.
In the autumn, it becomes noticeably colder at night, and it is still warm during the day. Such an unstable temperature does not allow the fruiting of many garden crops, so it is imperative to carry out autumn work in the country to prepare for winter. Here is a handy reminder to do in the garden in the fall. Keep yourself and use!
- In the garden you need to free the beds planted with tomatoes and peppers. They are unlikely to be able to fully mature. Green tomatoes will be able to finish the ripening process at home. To do this, they need to rinse well with soda. Then they will not rot, but will ripen safely, being on the closet.
- Cucumbers can not yet be removed from the greenhouse. As long as the temperature does not drop to minus, they can bear fruit safely.
- Carrots can be left in the ground before the first frost. So it will be better kept.
- Harvesting potatoes should be done according to the planted variety. Usually this period falls on September or the very beginning of October.
- Freed from the harvest beds should be planted with green manure. They should be chosen depending on which plants will be planted in the spring garden. The main species are mustard or cereals. They loosen the soil and fill it with nutrients.
- Onions and garlic can be planted in the beds, near the shoots of the sideratov. In winter, this will be an additional frost protection.
- On the site at this time you can make warm beds. To do this, you will need to make an organic layer of cut plants.
Autumn soil preparation for winter
After harvesting, it is necessary to immediately put the soil in the garden and in the garden in order. Autumn tillage improves soil fertility, helps fight pests, diseases, weeds and reduces labor costs. So, what is useful to do in the fall garden?
Autumn tillage for the prevention of diseases and pests
The beds must be cleaned from large weeds, dry tops, fruits and other debris. It is best to start autumn tillage at the same time with the harvest or at the earliest opportunity after it.Do not postpone for a long time: spores of pathogenic fungi ripen on decaying plant residues, infecting the soil and preparing for a successful wintering season. This is facilitated by rain, and in clear weather - fog and night dew.
It is often written that autumn work in the country is the tops of tomatoes and other plant waste, and signs of infection should not be put into compost, but burned. But this is not necessary: in the thickness of the compost there are no suitable conditions for the development of pathogens, the matured compost is safe for garden plants.
Immediately after harvesting the plant residues, as soon as possible, douse the beds to a depth of 3–4 cm to destroy the soil crust.
This must be done before a steady cooling. Loosening provokes the germination of weed seeds. The more they have time to climb by the fall, the better. After digging up the soil in autumn, the seedlings will die, which will reduce the weeding work in the next season.
Autumn soil digging
Should I dig up the soil in the fall? Autumn digging is not useful for all types of soil. It does not give a positive effect on sandy loose soil, and is extremely useful for heavy clay soil.
Digging the soil in the fall improves the structure of the clay soil. It forms pores, air voids, where oxygen enters. It is very important for respiration of the roots and the absorption of nutrients by plants. With a lack of oxygen, nutrients pass into a form inaccessible to plants, and the productivity of plants decreases.
Autumn digging the soil in the country reduces the infection of the garden with pests and diseases. It destroys the passages and nests of pests, opens up access to cold air for them. Lumps turned to the surface freeze through better, this contributes to their partial disinfection.
When digging decreases the number of annual weeds. Small shoots of weeds easily perish after digging, which will facilitate your weeding in the next season.
Snow moisture is rationally used. After digging, more snow accumulates on the uneven surface of the bed after digging. At the same time, when the snow melts, the water does not flow down the sides, but enters the pores and wells formed after digging and is absorbed deep into the soil. Thus, in the spring garden vegetables can use stocks of biologically active snow moisture for growth.
Hurry up to complete the digging before the beginning of the long rains: when the earth gets wet to a depth of 10 cm and more, you can’t dig it up anymore, since in this case you will trample down the soil, and this will break its structure. As a rule, experienced gardeners try to catch up with digging by early October.
Dig the beds to a depth of about 15-20 cm, if possible turning the lumps, so that the shoots of weeds are at the bottom. It is not necessary to break lumps carefully and level the bed: it will be better to accumulate snow and water on an uneven surface. This is a necessary autumn work in the country.
What fertilizers and additives to make in the soil in the fall
Manure.Is it possible to make manure in the fall? If you have nowhere to store and compost a large amount of manure, you can buy it in the fall and part of it immediately to the greenhouses and the beds, and part of it to lay in a pile for maturation. It is allowed to introduce fresh manure during the autumn soil preparation for planting cucumbers and other pumpkin crops (zucchini, pumpkins, melons), as well as dill, celery, late cabbage. If there is a lot of straw or sawdust in manure, in the first year after it is introduced, the vegetables require nitrogen supplements, as coarse organic materials will relock nitrogen when overheated.You will get the most out of making fresh manure through the season, when you can plant the same pumpkin crops, cabbage, greens, beets, and radishes on fertilized places.
In manure, usually a lot of weed seeds. Therefore, it is convenient to make it not in spring, but in autumn: most of the weeds will have time to ascend, and you can destroy them by loosening before the main crop is planted. In addition, when applied in the fall during the winter, the manure is saturated with moisture, gradually begins to sweep and mixes well with the soil.
How to make compost and manure humus into the soil.Ripened manure and compost can be applied to the soil in both spring and autumn. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. With the autumn application, part of the nutrients is washed out with melt water, but organic materials reach the optimum humidity, and then they easily mix with the soil. Therefore, choose the method that is more convenient.
Typically, under raspberries, currants, strawberries, apples and other perennial fruit crops, rotted manure and compost is applied during loosening after harvesting. Perennial flowers are also fertilized with decomposed organic fertilizers in the fall.At the same time, fertilizers can not be mixed with the soil, but laid out as mulch - in the winter it will play the role of insulation. It is more convenient to farm garden beds in the fall, only roughly digging up without breaking lumps, and making humus or compost in the spring for planting vegetables. In order to save, you can limit the filling with organic fertilizers only holes for planting seedlings and grooves when sowing seeds.
Peat.It contains few nutrients, but is good as a soil-improving additive. Lowland peat loosens heavy clay soil and increases moisture capacity of sandy. Dry peat does not wet well and is very slowly soaked with water, because of this it is sometimes difficult to evenly distribute it in the soil. Conveniently, if you have time, to make peat in the fall. If you have a very hard soil in a poorly cultivated garden, this advice comes in handy: add 4-5 liters (half a bucket) of peat per 1 m2 with autumn digging, then in the spring - as many peat or humus and dig again. This will simplify the uniform mixing of organic material with the soil, it will be easier to break up large lumps of clay.
Autumn liming of the soil: lime, chalk, ash, dolomite flour and other limescale additives.Pushon lime is introduced into the soil only in autumn, as it slows down the absorption of phosphorus.In order to avoid harm to plants, it is necessary that several months pass from the introduction to the beginning of the active growing season.
Now, to reduce the acidity of the soil, lime, dolomite or limestone, chalk, and ash are more often used than lime. All these additives can be applied to the soil at any time. This is often done in the spring: during careful loosening and leveling of the ridges, it is easier to distribute a small amount of limestone in the soil. Ash is desirable to make only in the spring - it contains water-soluble nutrients that are lost during leaching with melt water.
Mineral fertilizers.For a more rational use of mineral fertilizers in the garden it is better to make them in the spring, just before sowing or planting vegetables. Under perennial crops, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers in the fall.
Contrary to popular belief, autumn fertilizers should include not only phosphorus and potassium, but also necessarily nitrogen (albeit in a different proportion compared to summer fertilizers).
After leaf fall, the metabolism of perennial crops slows down, but does not stop completely.Many plants continue to consume nitrogen and store it for intensive growth in the spring. The uptake of nitrogen in cold soil is very slow, and the need for it in spring, especially in fruit trees, is very high, and spring fertilization cannot cover it.
In the fall, nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers can be applied separately to the household plot, but it is more convenient to use balanced autumn mineral complexes - they are in the range of almost every fertilizer manufacturer.