Characteristics of the geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus. Territory, population, monetary unit of the country
Belarus is a state located inEastern Europe. Its territory is in the basins of such rivers as the Western Dvina and the Dnieper, the Neman and the Bug. The north-eastern and eastern regions of Belarus border with the Russian Federation, the southern - with Ukraine, the western - with Lithuania and Poland, and the north-western - with Latvia.
This state is endlessexpanses of fields sowed with grain crops, flax, potatoes. The country is known for Belovezhskaya Pushcha and extensive areas of swamps, which Napoleon once called the fifth element.
Formation of the state
In the territory where currentlyBelarus is located, in the 10th and 13th centuries there were Turov, Polotsk and some other principalities. All of them were part of Kievan Rus. It was a kind of medieval federation in which the relations between the princes were formed on the basis of suzerainty-vassalage.
Since the middle of the thirteenth century, this situation has undergone significant changes. For five and a half centuries this territory became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Further, the lands were subordinated to the Russian Empire without the formation of statehood.
On 25.03.1918 a new stage in the history of the country began. It was on this day that the bourgeois-democratic state, the Belarusian People's Republic, was proclaimed. However, despite such a high profile, the country did not have its own Constitution, its own armed forces and clear borders. Thus, this territory could not be recognized as a full-fledged state.
Only on January 1, 1918, in connection with the formation of the BSSR, the country had its own Constitution, and the power concentrated in the hands of the Soviets of Deputies.
07/27/1990 Belarus declared its sovereignty. According to the current Constitution of the Republic, the head of its executive power is the President, and the supreme legislative body is the National Assembly.
Characteristics of the geopolitical situationThe Republic of Belarus radically changed after the end of the so-called Cold War. This was the period when the USSR disintegrated, and the Organization of the Warsaw Treaty ceased to exist. Since 1991, the history of Belarus is the history of an independent state with significant resources, as well as military and economic potential.
Country on the map
Assessment of the geopolitical situation of the RepublicBelarus is closely connected with its geographical location. The country can be found in the heart of Europe, in the middle part of the Eurasian continent. The length of Belarus from its northern to southern borders is 560 kilometers. In the direction from east to west the country's territory is little more. This distance is 600 km.
The Republic of Belarus is located in the vicinity of quite strong and influential countries. The length of all its borders is 2,969 km, including:
- with Poland - 399 km;
- with Latvia - 143 km;
- with Ukraine - 975 km;
- with Lithuania - 162 km;
- with Russia - 990 km.
When assessing the favorable geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus, the location of its capital, the city of Minsk, is taken into account. From it to:
- Moscow - 700 km;
- Vilnius - 215 km;
- Kiev - 580 km;
- Warsaw - 550 km;
- Riga - 470 km;
- Vienna - 1300 km;
- Berlin - 1060 km.
The role of neighboring states
Location in the long-mastered and populated partEurope is conditioned by the fact that the assessment of the geopolitical position of the Republic of Belarus is highly appreciated. At the same time, an important aspect for the economic development of the country is a favorable neighborhood. The states that are part of the nearest environment of Belarus have a positive impact on the development of its national economy.
Particularly important for the Republic is the neighborhoodwith central and northwestern regions of Russia. These are economically highly developed regions in the territory of which many chemical, machine-building, textile and other industries are concentrated, closely related to similar enterprises in Belarus. In addition, Belarus for Russia is the closest, and therefore the most economically profitable supplier, delivering its goods to such major cities as Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Poland for Belarus as a neighboring statealso plays an important role in economic development. The integration of the Republic into the European community largely depends on the relations with the western neighbor. It should be remembered that Belarus and Poland are not only bound by a common border. These two countries have many common historical and ethnographic roots.
When assessing the geopolitical situation of the RepublicBelarus should also mention that this country is continental. It is included in the list of seventeen states of the world, which do not have a direct access to the sea routes. Of course, this is an obvious minus. However, it is completely compensated by a well-developed river system located on the territory of the country. In addition, the leadership of Belarus actively uses nearby seaports located in neighboring countries. Among them are Gdansk and Kaliningrad, Klaipeda and Ventspils. All these ports are located at a distance of 250 to 350 kilometers from the state borders of the Republic of Belarus.
A high assessment of the geopolitical situationThe Republic of Belarus is given also in connection with the fact that its borders with neighboring states pass through flat areas. This was an excellent prerequisite for the creation of convenient routes, currently used for the development of economic ties not only with neighboring countries, but also with many other countries in Asia and Europe.
It is worth mentioning that one of the mostTransparency is an attractive aspect of Belarus' geographical position. Thanks to it, a large number of trade, cultural and economic routes of communication cross the territory of the country. This fact positively influences the economic development of the Republic.
It is worth mentioning that what we know fromhistory, the way "from the Varangians to the Greeks" covered almost all of the present territory of the country with its branches. Today, corridors are opened here, for which international relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan with the Baltic, Ukraine, Russia and Poland are being implemented. They use their neighbor countries and for making contacts between themselves and with other states. A part of the transcontinental railway runs through Belarus. It crosses all of Eurasia.
Belarus is a transit countryalmost fifty percent of energy supplies that pump liquid fuel from Russia to consumers in Western Europe via gas and oil pipelines. In this regard, RB has significant economic benefits.
However, such a geopolitical advantage does notalways benefited. Being in the center of Europe, Belarus more than once became a territory where the interests of its more influential neighbors collided. Over the past three centuries, numerous wars have brought her tremendous destruction and significant losses. It is not for nothing that the main day of Belarus, when the country celebrates its independence, falls on July 3 every year. This is the date of the liberation of Minsk from the German invaders in the course of the operation carried out by the Soviet troops in the summer of 1944 "Bagration".
Size of territory
The area of Belarus is 207.6 thousand squarekilometers. This fact should also be mentioned, assessing all the pros and cons of the geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus. By its size, the country is on the thirteenth place in the list of more than forty European countries. This is 2.1% of the total area of Europe.
By its size the territory of Belarus exceedsthe lands of Austria, Portugal, Greece and the Netherlands. It can be compared with the UK, which is located on 244.1 thousand square kilometers, and with Romania, occupying 237.5 thousand square meters. km. As for the Baltic states, their area, even in aggregate, is 1.2 times smaller than in Belarus.
Residents of the country
Describe the features that havecharacteristic of the geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus, is impossible without mentioning its population. By the number of inhabitants, the Republic of Belarus is on the fourteenth place in Europe. It should be said that the population of Belarus is more numerous:
- in 1,3 times, than in the Baltic countries;
- in 2 times, than in Denmark or in Finland.
The population of Belarus is similar in number to many European countries. They include Hungary and Belgium, Portugal and Greece, Yugoslavia and the Czech Republic.
The population density per square kilometer inthe national average is in the range of 48.4 people. This is close to the same indicator for Ireland (51 people), as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina (54 people). Slightly inferior to the density of the population of Belarus, Lithuania, where 56 people live per square kilometer. As for the countries in the center and the east of Europe, they have significant differences in this respect. For example, in Poland, the density indicator is 124 people per square kilometer. km, in the Czech Republic - 131, and in Slovakia - 110.
The national composition of Belarus is differentrelative homogeneity. This favors the stable development of the country. According to the census conducted in 1999, the population of the Republic is represented by:
- Belarusians - 81.2%;
- Russians - 11.4%;
- Poles - 3.9%;
- Ukrainians - 2.1%;
- Jews - 0.1% and other minorities.
There are two official languages in the Republic. This is Russian and Belarusian. However, the history of the state has left its indelible imprint on many generations. In what language does Belarus prefer to communicate? The table below clearly indicates that in this country you are most likely to hear Russian speech.
One of the most important prerequisites for sustainabledevelopment of Belarus - the conduct of a sound defensive policy taking into account the interests of other peoples. It should be said that as of 1995 the country was one of the most militarized in the world. This had a huge impact on the geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus. After the collapse of the USSR, the state held many activities to reform its military personnel. As a result of these actions, the number of armed forces almost doubled. Due to the compactness of the country's territory and the insignificant length of its land borders, Belarus copes with their protection even with a relatively small number of troops and the absence of natural defensive lines.
To date, the money of Belarus is notonly cash. Pay for goods and services can be traveler's checks and plastic cards. The national currency is the Belarusian ruble. It does not belong to the category of freely convertible, and therefore it is impossible for tourists arriving in the country to purchase it in advance.
The state has nine types of circulationbanknotes. This denominations from 100 to 200 000 rubles. As for the metallic currency, they are not used for calculations. The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus produces only commemorative coins, which only interest collectors.
From 1.07.2016 in Belarus, a denomination is planned with the replacement of existing 2000 banknotes of the 2000 model year. New bills will be issued. This is a bank note 2009. As a means of settlement after a long break, coins will also appear.
Modern conditions of development
Belarus today is classified as "small"countries that do not have a significant impact on the global development of economic processes. The following table illustrates the geopolitical situation of the Republic of Belarus.
However, the convenient location of the country on the mapis considered in the interests of major players in the system of international relations. Belarus today is a connecting bridge between East and West, South and North. In this regard, it can be assigned the role of a center for business, as well as transport and communication services. In addition, as a transit state, Belarus is interested in both Russia and countries in Western Europe.
To date, the reality of geopoliticalthe position of the Republic of Belarus is concluded in its political and economic integration into the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) system. In addition, due to its predominant geographical location, the capital of the state - the city of Minsk - is the place where the coordinating body of the CIS is located. For most of the Commonwealth countries, Belarus is a kind of window to Europe. In addition to this membership, the Republic is part of the Eurasian Economic Community. It also includes Russia and Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
To date, the geopolitical position of the Republic of Belarusfinds its practical application due to the high density of international transport communications located on its territory. So, in a relatively small segment of the border (350 kilometers) there are a number of railway (Brest and Vysokoe, Berestovitsa, Svisloch and Grodno), as well as automobile border crossings.
It is worth mentioning that it is very differentpolitical and economic-geographical situation of individual regions of the country. All its areas, except Minsk, have borders with neighboring countries. At the same time, each of them has borders with two states. Only the Mogilev region has an external border only with Russia. Hence, there is such a variety of commodity exchange structures that are oriented toward border contacts. So, the western regions of the country actively cooperate with the enterprises of Poland, Germany and other European countries. And the eastern regions are connected by strong economic threads with the Russian Federation.
Thus, the geopolitical andthe economic and geographical position of the Republic of Belarus is its most important resource. Its use, without any doubt, will allow the country to reach a new level of economic development. This is of great importance for the economic prosperity of the state.