Coagulants for water purification in the pool: how to choose + rules of application
Owners of suburban areas with pools are well aware of the problem of gradual pollution of the water and the walls of the structure. Despite its cyclical movement and regular passage through the filters, a muddy precipitate and a hazardous suspension almost inevitably appear. To combat the loss of water quality, there are effective tools that you should read. Do you agree?
Using coagulants for water purification in the pool, you can quickly and productively get rid of these problems and threats. We suggest to get acquainted with the valuable information that illuminates the principle of the action of coagulants, representing the most popular coagulating agents to date. With our help, the choice of the optimal composition will be made much easier.
The author of the article described the process of applying the coagulating composition in steps.Valuable recommendations on keeping a private reservoir clean are given, and popular methods for combating its turbidity are given. The information provided is supported by photo clips and videos.
Coagulants principle of operation
These substances have the property of combining microscopic particles of various pollutants, garbage, heavy metals and biological particles into a bulk jelly-like mass with the subsequent transition of this emulsion into flakes.
In this form, the suspension that could seep through the filters is retained by the grid and ceases to circulate in the water area of the basin.
Pollution from the bottom and surface must be removed. The top film can be removed with an ordinary net. When using automated means for the maintenance of containers, the sediment will linger on the filter, which is easily removed from the ordinary washing. For this you can use a water jet under pressure.
Varieties and selection rules
All products that are commercially available contain organic or inorganic binding active substances. They are made on the basis of sulfates, polyoxysulfates or chlorides of the following metals:
- Aluminum (aluminum) Al.
- Iron (ferrum) Fe.
- Titanium (titanium) Ti.
- Magnesium (Mg) Mg.
Manufacturers indicate the composition in Latin, therefore, along with the name of the active substance, its Latin name will be duplicated. The composition of the drug can be found either on the back of its packaging, or in the instructions.
Organic coagulating agents
The most popular coagulants produced on the basis of aluminum polyoxychloride (polyaluminium chloride), its second name - hydrochloride (hydroxychloride). Polyoxychloride aluminum has several advantages over inorganic reagents.
Among them are the key:
- The quality of purification is higher, which means that a smaller amount of reagent is required compared to sulphates.
- Low residual aluminum content in the water after the coagulation process, which reduces the frequency of water changes in the pool.
- The rate of formation of flakes is higher, and therefore the period of settling decreases.
- The residual salt content is reduced, which makes it possible to change the water in the pool less frequently.
- A high degree of purification is maintained even at a reduced level of ambient temperature.
When released into the ground, this reagent does not disrupt the natural balance in the region. The process of dissolution in water is simplified, as the tool does not require prolonged mixing.
When using this tool, you do not need to apply additional protection. It is enough to use gloves to protect the skin of the hands from irritation. It is also recommended to use a respirator.
Inorganic formulations with coagulating effect
The most popular inorganic compounds for coagulation are:
- Aluminum sulfate (aluminum sulfate).
- Ferrous sulfate (ferrous sulphate).
- Titanium dioxide (titanium dioxide).
Aluminum sulphate is easy to use, as it is diluted in ode without long standing. Its disadvantage is its sensitivity to the predominance of acidic or alkaline components in water.
The values of the tester should not exceed the range of the neutral level of pH 6.5 - 7.5, otherwise the effectiveness of the coagulant decreases sharply. Also, the reagent is sensitive to low temperatures and its use in the spring and autumn period is excluded.
The disadvantage of its use is increased (compared with hydrochloride) the release of salts, which changes the pH in water. This necessitates its leveling, and also increases the frequency of water changes in the pool, since, in addition to salt, when it is used in water, the dose of aluminum is exceeded.
Ferrous sulfate allows you to get rid of the unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulfide, to neutralize oily pollution and get rid of the high content of heavy metals. According to these properties, the reagent is superior to aluminum-containing reagents. It is not completely dissolved in water, a small part of the precipitate remains, not exceeding 1% by weight of the reagent.
Titanium dioxide has the highest percentage of purification. This reagent has a pronounced bactericidal action, and can be used without additional chlorination. Titanium dioxide has several advantages over iron and aluminum derivatives. It reduces settling time. According to this indicator, the reagent has no analogues.
Titanium dioxide is produced in Russia and abroad, so it can be found and purchased from suppliers. The disadvantage of the reagent is its high cost. After the application of titanium dioxide, water becomes potable, which is unnecessary for the pool.It is worth making a choice in favor of low-cost analogs based on aluminum.
Choosing a cleanser, you need to pay attention to the integrity of the package. Some reagents are sensitive to oxygen and are actively oxidized when interacting with it. This applies to iron-based coagulants.
Liquid reagents contain ready-made solution, which simplifies the process of use, but their price is higher. It is more profitable to purchase the product as a powder. It is enough for more applications, besides it is cheaper. This also applies to cartridges that are installed in the filter pump.
Comparison of coagulants with available tools
In the absence of filters or their weak power there is a problem of flowering of water in the pool. The lack of the necessary reagents forces the use of improvised substances.
The most popular are hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and brilliant green solution on alcohol.They have a disinfecting effect. The effect of their use lasts temporarily and leads to consequences that need to be considered separately.
After its application, flakes of dirty foam appear on the water surface. They are mechanically removed. Even after two days, the process of oxygen release will continue, which gives uncomfortable tactile sensations. When water gets on the skin with dissolved peroxide, a slight tingling will begin.
Do not allow this aqueous solution to be swallowed, or allowed to enter the respiratory system. This causes irritation of the mucous membranes. Peroxide allows water to cool more slowly, as it increases its density. However, peroxide can not replace the full cleaning coagulant.
Potassium permanganate diluted in water has a disinfectant property as long asuntil its color changes from pale pink to light brown or green.
The composition of green includes alcohol and triphenylmethane dye. There is no exact data on how this pigment affects the person when it enters the body. With prolonged contact of water in which brilliant green is dissolved with the walls of the pool, the material changes color.
These reagents can not serve as a full-fledged replacement of coagulants, since they do not bind a fine suspension. They can only disinfect water for a short time, while hazardous heavy metals and invisible substances do not disappear. They continue to be in the tank.
Step-by-step instructions for use
Before cleaning with drugs it is necessary to measure the acid-base balance. It must be done with a special device (pH tester) or litmus paper. The optimal level is from 7.5 to 8.0.If the result obtained is less than the specified range, then it is necessary to add alkali, if more, then add acid.
After adjusting the pH balance to neutral values, disinfection can proceed. This is a necessary measure to prevent infection by infectious pathogens. For this purpose, chlorine-containing tablets are used, which, unlike liquid preparations, do not emit an antiseptic in doses, during the dissolution process.
# 1: Calculating proportions as a function of displacement
Before you pour the reagent, you need to calculate the displacement. To determine it, it is necessary to calculate the volume of the pool. For the calculation it is necessary to measure the length, width and depth of the tank. If the pool has a round shape, then you need to measure the diameter and depth. All measurements need to be done in meters.
- formula for calculating the volume of a rectangular tank: LENGTH * WIDTH * DEPTH;
- formula for calculating the volume of a round container: DEPTH * 6.28 * SQUARE OF RADIUS;
The values obtained will be the displacement in liters. The dose of the substance is calculated on the basis of this value. If the degree of water contamination can be visually determined as strong, an increased dose may be needed, in this case, you need to pour 1.3 from the recommended by the manufacturer and can reach 25ml per 1m3.
Coagulant consumption can be reduced by using flocculants as an addition. These substances are used precisely for the formation of flakes and for weighting the mass to facilitate filtration processes. They are added within two minutes after entering the coagulant.
# 2: Preparing and pouring mortar
Manufacturers offer to purchase the reagent in three states:
Liquid reagent needs preliminary preparation. It must be diluted in water in a ratio of 1: 5. Next, you need to disable the filtering system. If this is not done, it will quickly become clogged with dirty flakes. The prepared solution must be poured into a watering can, and evenly poured over the entire surface.
If the reagent has a powdery consistency, then it is necessary to first prepare a concentrated solution. Mass fraction of aluminum sulfate should be 15%. To do this, the contents of the bag must be dissolved in an equal amount of water to its weight. The proportion of dilution 1: 1.
To prepare a solution with a mass fraction of sulphate or aluminum polyoxychloride less than 15%, use the formula:
- K1= K * D / D1- to calculate the mass of the reagent in kilograms;
- V = K - K1= K * (1 - D / D1)- to calculate the amount of water in liters.
- K1- the mass of the reagent.
- K- the required mass of the solution.
- D- mass fraction (%) of aluminum sulphate (polyoxychloride) in solution.
- D1- mass fraction (%) of aluminum sulfate (polyoxychloride) in the initial reagent.
The resulting solution should be poured into the pool. You can make the solution in advance, it is well kept unchanged for a year.
# 3: Cleaning the surface and bottom after coagulation
After 10-12 hours after the start of coagulation, the bottom and the surface should be cleaned of the precipitated sediment. For this purpose, a water vacuum cleaner is used. This device has two hoses, one of which is connected to the tube.
The water surface in a temporary structure constructed for the summer season is cleaned either with a vacuum cleaner or with mounted water intakes made in the form of skimmers. This is a special bowl that connects to the filter system and collects debris from the surface.
In stationary pools it is a built-in mechanism used to collect water from the surface for subsequent cleaning.
In the skimmer bowl there is a grid that prevents the passage of large debris that can damage the filter system. As the bowl is filled, it must be cleaned by hand. Such a system is able to completely clean the surface during the hour of active work.
Recommendations for keeping the pool clean
In order for the pool not to clog, you must regularly do chlorination with special pills. After chlorination, reagents are cleaned every 2 weeks. After the reagents, the pool is cleaned with a water vacuum. After that, the filtering system is turned off, and the filter is washed.
After 12 hours, the filtration system is turned on and a turbid suspension is removed from the bottom and surface of the pool. During this period it is necessary to clean the filter again. It must be cleaned by swapping the hoses according to the pump model and turning on the backwash. Part of the old water from the pool is removed, and the quartz sand is washed in the filter.
After the end of the flushing, it is necessary to return the hoses to their original working condition and, if necessary, pour fresh water into the pool.Since the decomposition of the coagulant in the water over time accumulates an excess amount of the products of the action of the reagent, then every two months a complete replacement of water in the swimming pool is necessary.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Water purification by coagulation on the example of experience:
Cleaning of a muddy sediment after coagulation:
Good reagents must be purchased from reliable manufacturers, making sure to pay attention to the mass fraction of the active substance. The greater the percentage of its content, the more effective and economical will be its use.
If the desired result was not achieved while using the drug, then it is necessary to increase the dose. If this does not improve the situation, it is better to drain the water from the basin, since an unknown composition may be not only useless, but also harmful.