General heating meters: order and options for calculating heating
Residents of apartment buildings are often interested in how profitable are home-based heating meters, the installation of which has recently been mandatory in all regions of Russia.
This question is difficult to answer unequivocally, since there are several options for calculating the monthly fee for such a service. Let us consider in more detail the existing accrual orders, taking into account all sorts of nuances.
The need for installation of all-house flow meters
The Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 23.11.09 No. 261-FZ "On the energy saving of energy resources and the use of metering devices for used energy resources when calculating for them" indicates the importance of installing house meters that are designed to monitor heat consumption.
The regulation obliges to install such devices in all apartment buildings, with the exception of emergency buildings. In addition, it is considered inexpedient to equip buildings with these devices if the amount of payment for the purchase and installation of a flowmeter exceeds the amount of payments for heating received within six months.
Lawmakers believe this Resolution will contribute to the achievement of the following objectives:
- Equitable distribution of payment for heat energy supplied to homes. Homeowners who are concerned about reducing heat loss (for example, those involved in the insulation of an apartment or facade) must pay less than those who have a constant heat leakage through the cracks or open air vent.
- Motivations of tenants to respect both residential and common building premises. They should know that the heating fee will automatically increase in case of an open door or broken glass, not only in the apartment, but also the entrance.
In addition, the law № 261 officially transfers to the tenants the responsibility for common property. According to this legal act, public utilities are no longer responsible for the condition of entrances, basements and attics.All work in public spaces should be carried out at the expense of the owners of apartments located in the same house.
Varieties of general heat meters
Various instruments are used as instruments for heat control, which may vary in the way they work, the design features, the specifics of maintenance and installation.
The decision to install a particular model will help the experts of the organization engaged in the installation and maintenance of similar devices in the city (region). They will talk about the features of the devices, recommend options that work best in local conditions.
They will consult about the equipment (valves, filters, etc.), which should be purchased additionally, as well as give advice on the warranty obligations of the supplier.
Four types of flow meters are most commonly used in housing and public utilities:
- tachometric (mechanical);
Consider the above devices in detail.
Option # 1: tachometers
Such devices, the system of which includes mechanical rotary or wing devices and heat calculators, are considered the most budgetary option, since their cost is much lower than similar devices of other types. However, for their installation, in addition to standard equipment, an additional magnetic-mechanical filter is required, which protects both the device and the entire system from contamination.
The main disadvantage of this category of models is the inability to use them with low water quality (increased rigidity, a large percentage of impurities). In this case, the filter is quickly clogged, causing a decrease in the pressure of the coolant. Because of this peculiarity of work, tachometer counters, as a rule, are used only in the private sector.
Option # 2: Electromagnetic
Such devices are based on the well-known property of liquids — the generation of electric current during the passage of magnetic fields. Measuring the volume of water and incoming / outgoing temperature, you can even catch very small currents.
Electromagnetic devices have a high degree of accuracy, but they require high-quality installation and regular maintenance by qualified personnel. When untimely cleaning devices begin to inflate readings. A large amount of ferrous compounds in the liquid and poor-quality wiring also contributes to the distortion of data in a big way.
Option # 3: Vortex
When a fluid flow meets an obstacle, turbulence forms in the water. The action of the mechanisms of this type is based on this principle. Such measuring devices can be installed both on horizontal and on vertical sections of communication systems, the main thing is that the device should be located on a straight pipeline section.
The advantages of such meters include low energy consumption (one lithium-ion battery lasts about 5 years). Vortex meters are sensitive to pressure drops, as well as the presence of large impurities, because of which they require additional installation of filters. At the same time, the impurities of metal salts in water, as well as the formed deposits in pipes, do not affect the readings of the instruments.
Option # 4: Ultrasound
The readings of this type of apparatus are based on the passage of the ultrasonic signal through the water flow. The higher the speed of the latter, the longer the waiting response.
Devices of this type show themselves well in new homes, in the pipes of which there are no deposits. However, impurities, pressure drops, air bubbles in water can significantly increase the readings of flow meters in this category.
Before installing the flow meter you need to know
All expenses for the purchase, installation, maintenance of the device are borne by residents. Owners of non-privatized apartments are reimbursed by the local municipality.
The choice of organization that will take over the installation of the device requires special attention. It is desirable that the same company is also engaged in the maintenance of the meter, including the timely cleaning of filters, maintenance, regular maintenance of the device.
External negative factors
It is also important to consider that many external factors affect the correct operation of flowmeters. Among them are the following reasons:
- The formation of mineral deposits in the pipes, which reduces their inner diameter. This causes an increase in flow. Since measuring devices are designed for a certain size of elements, a decrease in this indicator will lead to incorrect calculations, and the result obtained will exceed the actual value.
- The presence of impurities in the water. Mechanical impurities and air bubbles cause a significant error of indication, reaching 10%. To clean the liquid, it is recommended to additionally provide instruments with filters that trap foreign particles.
- Precipitation on the details of the flow meter. When using mechanical structures, a similar process reduces readings, whereas in other types of devices it causes a significant (sometimes multiple) excess of actual values.
- The adverse microclimate of the room where the installation of the measuring device. Dampness, temperature drops are especially reflected in devices with electronic mechanisms.
- Lack of grounding and poor electrical circuits, as a result of which electrical potential may occur on the pipeline.
- Uneven pressure in the system adversely affects the correctness of the measurements. The same can be said about the careless installation of the meter, which can also distort the data.
- Coolant temperature. Hot liquid, whose temperature exceeds the permissible limits, may harm the elements of the meter.
To avoid incorrect readings and extend the life of the device, it is important to regularly carry out qualified servicing and inspection of the device.
Ways of general house savings
There are several proven ways to reduce payments for heating, formed with the help of general house counters.
The following joint events will help reduce performance:
- high-quality insulation of the building;
- full entrance glazing with the replacement of conventional frames for more durable and insulating metal-plastic products.
Although such activities will require a one-time investment of tenants, they are beneficial in the long term.
Settlement operations for a house-wide appliance
Not so long ago, in the Russian Federation, the Government of Russia Decree No. 603 of 06/29/2016 was adopted, in which the updated rules for calculating heating for a house-wide meter are listed in detail.
According to this legislation, the price of heat energy depends on the following factors:
- heat input from the heating plant or a small boiler house serving the house (group of buildings);
- the presence / absence of a general heat meter;
- equipment of apartments with individual flow meters or their absence.
According to clause 42.1 of the “Calculation Rules” No. 354, depending on the decision of the local municipality, the charge for the provided heat can be charged only during the heating season or evenly distributed monthly throughout the year. The adopted legislation considers several options.
Supply of heating to the house with switchgear (without individual devices)
If the heat is supplied to a building equipped with general house flow meters, and the apartments do not have individual heat meters, in the case of payment for heat during the heating season, the calculation is made according to the formula:
P = V x (S / Sabout) x Twhere
V is the total amount of heat that has been supplied to the building on the basis of the readings of the general house flow meter (in gigacalories);
- S is the total area of a separate apartment (in square meters);
- Sabout- total living area of apartments located in the building, m2;
- T - tariff for one gigcalorium provided (set by the local administration in coordination with the providers of this service), RUB / Gcal.
If heat is charged evenly throughout the year, the recalculation factor K is added to the formula. It is calculated by dividing the number of months of the heating season (7-8) by 12 (the number of months in a year). If the period of heating homes lasts for seven months, thenK = 0.58.
Regardless of the calculation scheme, the total amount deposited during the year will be approximately the same.
If the installation of an OPU is impossible
In this case, the order of charging for heat to residents of old houses is considered, where, owing to the technological features of the networks, installation of common metering devices is not possible. In this case, payments are calculated according to the standard consumption of heat.
When charging payments only in the months of the heating period, the formula is used:
P = S x N x Twhere
- S - total area of housing, m2;
- N is the normative rate of heat consumption, measured in gigacalories per square meter;
- T - the rate set by the local administration for 1 Gcal, agreed with the service provider, RUB / Gcal.
If the charge for heat energy is divided into all months of the year, then the formula should be added to the recalculation factor K = 0.58 (as in the previous case, it is calculated by dividing 7 months of the heating season by 12 months). Thus, the formula will be:
P = S x (N x K) x T
As in the previously noted case, the total amounts of annual payments will be the same.
Lack of RAM when it can be installed
If the house does not have a house-wide meter, but it is technically possible to install it, then the following formula is used to calculate the charge during the heating season:
P = S × N × Kturn× Twhere
- S - the area of the required premises (in square meters);
- N is the heat consumption standard (Gcal / sq.m);
- Kturn- multiplying factor, the value of which varies. In 2016, this figure was 1.4, and from January 1, 2017 it rose to 1.5;
- T is the tariff for heat energy installed in this region (rub / Gcal).
In the case of monthly heat payment in the continuation of the year, the resulting number is multiplied by the coefficient K = 0.58 already known to us (for the seven-month heating season).
Calculation of heat with pilot plant and individual meters
This option is often found in newly commissioned homes. In this case, the calculation is made according to the formula:
P = (Vand+ Vaboutx S / Sabout) x Twhere
Vand- the amount of heat consumed during the estimated period according to the indications of individual flow meters (Gcal);
Vabout- the amount of heat in gigacalories supplied to the residents of the house according to the total meter except for the amount consumed, which is determined by the formula
- Vn- quantities consumed for the calculated interval of heat energy, determined according to the indications of general home appliances for the heating season term (Gcal);
- S1 - the area of residential premises, equipped with an individual meter (sq. M);
- Vodn - the amount of electricity according to the indications of individual flow meters installed in apartments;
- Sabout- the total area of residential and office space in the house (square meters);
- T - adopted in this area tariff for heat.
In this case, payment is made exclusively during the heat supply season.
Benefits of using counters
Household flowmeters can significantly save on heating. The price for heat, calculated according to actual performance, is, on average, 30% lower than according to standards.
In addition, when paying at the established tariffs, the beginning / end of the heating period is not taken into account: regardless of the specific, accrual is made for the whole month.
But the house meter does not solve all the problems with heating payments, since in this case it is necessary to pay on average data to all apartment owners, regardless of the amount of heat consumed.
In this case, the residents will be rescued by an individual heat meter, which also allows you to adjust the heat transfer from the radiators.
Calculation of standards for heating
In the development of standards of heat consumption is taken into account:
- The total consumption of heat energy, which is necessary for heating all the rooms during the heating season.
- The total area of heated spaces in the building, as well as buildings connected to the heating system.
- The duration of the heating season (including the incomplete calendar months in which measurements were taken).
- In addition, when making calculations, the average daily temperatures of heated air indoors and cold outside are taken into account (measurements are taken during the heating season). In the first case, the indicators specified in the regulatory documents for the provision of public services are taken as a basis. In the second, the average value for the five previous heating periods is taken into account (data are provided by the regional hydrometeorological service).
An important parameter is also the average maximum temperature, which is calculated from measurements of the five most frosty winter days, following each other.
In a temperate zone, centralized heating services are usually produced for 7-8 months - from September-October to April-May; in the first and last months, fees may be charged at a reduced rate of consumption.
The process of approval of standards and tariffs
All calculated indicators are compiled by specialists and employees of heat supply organizations. Then they are mandatory approved by the energy commissions operating within a particular locality, region, region. Representatives of local authorities and public organizations, as well as deputies of different levels, are also invited to the meeting, where the planned rates for heat energy are considered.
The calculation of tariffs is made in accordance with the legislative acts of the Government of the Russian Federation, which establish consumption standards for housing and communal services, including the amount of heat energy. Heat supply organizations need to document and justify the proposed prices for heating services.
Since the actual temperature of the outside air during the heating season may not coincide with the calculated standards, once a year the housing and public utilities services produce recalculations. In case of severe cold, consumers will have to pay a certain amount, while in mild winter an overpayment is possible, which is counted towards future payments. The same procedure is carried out once a year in homes where flow meters are not provided.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The presented video presents the expert's opinion on the advantages provided by the general home heat meters.
A house-wide meter is a useful device that can significantly reduce the very high heating costs. Despite the high cost, the funds for its installation quickly pay for themselves, especially with the conscious interaction of residents who take joint measures to reduce heat consumption.