How did a person become a human being?
People have long been concerned with the question: how their ancestors could conquer the whole planet and create for themselves a whole world, changing it beyond recognition. How and why did man become a real person? Which way did he go through and what tests to overcome?
The evolutionary path of Homo sapiens begins withChimpanzee-like animals that inhabited the forests of Africa. Then their descendants, Australopithecus, first emerged from the forest, standing on two legs, and even millions of years later, the species Homo Erectus, with a developed physique, became a full-fledged inhabitant of the African savannah. All this time, both the brain and the body of our ancestors became larger. The brain of modern man has become almost four times larger, and this is what determines our thinking and behavioral characteristics.
Ability to adapt
Many scientists are of the opinion that the strugglefor existence in the wild African savannah has become the main engine of human evolution. But recent archaeological excavations provided new data for analysis on the conditions under which our ancestors developed millions of years ago. In the early era of the evolution of Homo Sapiens, the surrounding terrain changed very quickly, which made it impossible to physically adapt. Instead, people have learned to change something else - their behavior. Only intelligent enough people who could find food and water under constantly changing conditions, survived and passed on their genes to their descendants.
According to one version, the fact that the brain of our ancestorsbegan to grow at a time when they lived in a volatile environment, there was no accident. A more developed thinking device allowed a person to develop a flexible behavior model. It turns out that the key role in the formation of our ancestors was played not by the struggle for existence, but by the ability to adapt to the most diverse environmental conditions.
Another important stage of our evolutionaryhistory is the beginning of the making of tools. This skill has become one of the key for both the human and the Homo genus as a whole. Another man skilled (Homo Habilis) could make stone tools about 2,5 million years ago. Homo Habilis was a little like us and had a brain half the size of a modern man. But the tools allowed him to expand existing opportunities and acquire new ones. In the end, he was able to eat more nutritious and varied food than monkeys.
Over time, tools of labor became more complex. A million years later a new species appeared - Homo Erectus, a straight-footed man. Representatives of this species were tall and slender and had a larger brain than their predecessors. For many years their stone hand chippers were the most advanced technology. Thanks to such tools, our ancestors could quickly cut food and defend themselves more effectively, which means they were able to populate new territories, find food and shelter there.
The Stone Age enriched man not only with toolslabor. He crystallized in us the ability to share experiences, understand others and learn from each other. After all, in order to make a complex instrument, it does not hurt to know what others think about it. In addition, you need to keep in mind an abstract representation of the created tool. There is an opinion that this abstract thinking is directly connected with another important and specific skill - language communication.
The ability to talk builds the look of HomoSapiens to a new and unique level. Symbolic thinking and the ability to convey sounds through our own thoughts allowed our mind to share knowledge with unprecedented efficiency. Not surprisingly, knowledge began to accumulate faster, and training was more effective.
Developed thinking and behaviorhave determined human success - we have an unrivaled ability to cooperate, are able to communicate successfully, understand each other's thoughts and feelings. Thanks to this, as the number of people grows, the number of discoveries and achievements passed through generations increases. But nevertheless, of all the features that determine the course of human evolution, one stands out, the most important is our incredibly complex and skilful brain.