How the hood is arranged in the garage: popular schemes and the technology of proper arrangement
Garage - the room is relatively small, but its arrangement should not be taken lightly. It should protect the vehicle from external influence: bad weather, theft, etc.
But inside you need to create a microclimate that is useful for people and technicians. This is not difficult to achieve, if the hood in the garage is arranged correctly.
Why ventilate the garage
Of course, a garage is a technical, not a residential object, although some car owners may not agree with this statement. If a motorist spends much of his personal time in the garage, and he also uses the basement or the garage itself to store food stocks, all the more you should be concerned about the problem of proper ventilation in such a specific room.
For a start, there is a high concentration of exhaust gases, fuel vapors and other technical fluids. Even a short stay in such an atmosphere is extremely harmful for a person.
The second problem associated with improper ventilation of the garage is excess moisture. Water vapor accumulates indoors and condenses on various surfaces, including the car. As a result, the risk of occurrence and the rate of occurrence of corrosion processes increases dramatically, in other words, the vehicle rusts.
Often in the garages or cellars arranged under them store vegetables, canned goods, other products or things that have no place in the house or apartment. Contact with moisture, as well as exposure to technical vapors will not bring any benefit to all these objects. And to solve the problem, you can simply take care of effective ventilation.
What you need to know about room ventilation
Anyone who has ever encountered the problem of air exchange in rooms is known to distinguish between a natural, forced and combined ventilation system. With the first option, everything is simple: it is based on the difference in air temperature inside and outside.
As you know, warm air rises, and cold air goes down. The idea is that cool air masses enter the room from the street, rise up and naturally go through the exhaust hole. At the same time, they must be replaced by new streams of fresh air that flow in from outside.
In the garage, such ventilation is not difficult to organize. To do this, it is necessary to provide sufficiently wide openings for air inflow and exhaust, but the temperature difference inside and outside the room will also be of great importance. In the winter period, this condition does not cause any problems, but in the summer, when there is practically the same heat everywhere, the efficiency of the functioning of natural ventilation is sharply reduced.
An alternative option in such a situation is forced ventilation, i.e. using additional funds. Special fans, which, depending on the purpose, force air into the room, or remove it, are installed into the inlet and exhaust ports.
But to put at the same time two devices for one small garage is not always reasonable and justified from an economic point of view. It is more profitable to use a combined ventilation system, for which only one device is needed. For example, install the intake fan, it injects fresh air, and the exhaust air masses are forced out through the exhaust hole.
In garages, an exhaust system is considered more acceptable. Install the fan, which effectively removes the air saturated with harmful vapors and excess moisture. Fresh air masses will flow into the room in a natural way through the inlet part of the system.
Features of the arrangement of natural ventilation
To ensure proper natural ventilation of the garage, you need to remember a number of basic rules:
- The air inlet is placed at the bottom, about 10 cm from the floor level.
- Exhaust hole do at the top, almost under the ceiling or even directly in the ceiling.
- The optimal placement of these holes is diagonal, i.e. if the inflow is in the lower front corner, then the hood must be placed in the upper far corner.
- The dimensions of the holes must be calculated correctly in order to ensure a sufficiently intensive air exchange.
- The inlet should always be two to three times larger than the size of the hood.
Well, if the ventilation was calculated and created during the construction of the garage. If this moment was missed, you will have to perform a number of relatively simple installation work. It also happens that the ventilation is provided, but does not give the desired results. In this case, you will need to improve the system, for example, by installing an exhaust fan.
How to calculate everything
Ventilation calculations in many cases require special knowledge and the use of complex techniques. If there is a desire and allows a wallet, the creation of the project can be ordered from the experts. Fortunately, a garage is a small room with a simple configuration. The dimensions of the ventilation holes are calculated by the formula:
Psech= Pgar ×15
- Psech- the cross-sectional area of the vent;
- Pgar- garage area;
- 15 - coefficient reflecting the size of the ventilation hole per unit area of the room.
Those. you need to multiply the garage area by 15 mm. According to this simplified technique for a garage of 24 square meters. m. (6 * 4) you will need a supply hole with a diameter of 360 mm. These calculations are very conditional, because the technique does not take into account the height of the room and its other features.
In practice, these figures can vary. For the above garage area of 24 square meters. In one particular case, two pipes of 150 mm each on the tributary and one such pipe on the exhaust were successfully used.
To improve the efficiency of natural ventilation, you can use additional tools:
- The deflector is a special cap that is installed on the edge of the vertical section of the exhaust pipe in order to create a rarefied atmosphere inside the structure and accelerate the movement of air masses.
- The diffuser is a wind vane for the external part of the inlet pipe, and wind pressure is used for its operation.
- Conventional incandescent lamp - it is installed inside the exhaust pipe and heats the air flow, accelerating its movement.
These simple devices can significantly improve the quality of ventilation in the garage.
How to correctly perform the installation
In order to organize proper ventilation of the garage, you will need to make at least two openings: for the inflow of fresh air, as well as for the outlet of streams saturated with harmful fumes and excess moisture. The inlet is made in the lower part of the outer wall, about 10-15 cm from the floor.
Thick walls of residential premises are drilled with the help of special equipment, but for garages such complexity is not needed. Most often, a hole of a suitable diameter is drilled using a perforator.
After that, a pipe or pipes for inflow are inserted into the hole and their position is fixed. For sealing the gaps between the pipe and the wall material using mounting foam. The outer side of the hole should be protected with a special grille or diffuser.
The cross section of the ventilation channel can be made not only round, but also square or rectangular. For installation will need pipes of appropriate configuration. Usually for garage ventilation use pipes with a circular cross section. This is the cheapest and most convenient option, in addition, they create minimal resistance to air flow. Metal pipes and plastic constructions are suitable for ventilation.
Hole for exhaust do under the ceiling. The pipe is led out horizontally through the wall and then mounted a vertical segment. It should be long enough. The best is the hood, which rises above the level of the roof by at least 50 cm. A hood-deflector is often installed on top. The inner side of both the supply and exhaust openings should be covered with a decorative grille.
Combined and forced ventilation
As noted above, the natural ventilation of the garage is effective only under certain external conditions, i.e.with a sufficient difference in air temperature inside and outside. The use of means of forced ventilation can eliminate the problem of this type.
Effective removal of air in the garage is more than relevant, since the level of pollution is much higher here than in residential areas. Therefore, the owners of garages prefer the exhaust variant of the combined ventilation. To implement this type of project is not so difficult.
To do this, you need to purchase an exhaust fan and install it at the entrance to the pipe. If such a pipe is missing, it must be installed. This is done in much the same way as when installing natural ventilation. Calculations, materials and tools will need the same, calculations are carried out in a similar way, but there are a few differences.
When combined ventilation is not necessary to install the hood strictly diagonally from the inlet, although this situation is desirable. You can choose another place, both for the inlet and the exhaust port. But the first must still be placed at the bottom, and the second - at the top.
Another important point - the presence of furniture and other items in the path of air flow. This is a common mistake in the design of ventilation. The fewer such obstacles, the better the air exchange will be. An exhaust fan should be installed in the upper tube.
This may be a channel model, which is installed inside the pipe, or alternatively an invoice option, such devices are mounted directly on the wall. After that, the fan should be connected to the power supply. To improve the performance of such exhaust, you can provide the fan with additional automatic control modules. For example, a timer that will turn the device on and off at a specific time.
This will allow a little to reduce the cost of electricity, as well as to provide ventilation of the garage, even in the absence of its owner.If the garage already has natural ventilation, but it does not work efficiently enough, the best solution would be to install an exhaust fan in the already finished channel. If during the winter period natural ventilation is carried out well enough, then the fan can be used only in the summer.
Forced ventilation involves the installation of both the intake and exhaust fans in the corresponding holes. In conventional garages, such systems are usually not used, since the problem is solved with the help of simpler options: a natural or combined system.
To make forced ventilation in the garage makes sense only in those cases where you simply can not do without it. For example, for a garage located underground, forced ventilation is the only option. It happens that in the garage it is planned to carry out paint and varnish or other work in which good air exchange is of particular importance. Here forced ventilation will be very helpful.
Cellar and observation pit
Above was considered the option of ventilation of the usual garage.If inside there is a basement and / or observation pit, these objects should be taken care of separately. In the case of the basement, it is imperative to arrange a separate ventilation duct. This is necessary because the moisture below accumulates much more than at the top of the room.
If there is no ventilation, this moisture will penetrate into the garage and harm the vehicle stored in it. Ventilation, which is arranged in the garage, even when using forced methods of inflow and removal of air, usually cannot provide a sufficiently intensive exchange of air masses.
To effectively ventilate the basement, two holes should be made: supply and exhaust. It is recommended to ensure the flow of air in the southern part of the cellar, and the output of air flow - from the north.
The supply pipe is usually introduced into the cellar through the floor of the garage and lowered as low as possible. Hood arrange in the opposite corner, this pipe through the floor of the garage is brought up and out.As with the ventilation device in the garage, the cross-section of the holes for inflow should be two to three times larger than the size of the hood.
The greater the height difference between the edge of the supply and the hood, the more effective the ventilation of the cellar will be. A difference of three meters or more is considered optimal. To increase the differential, the vertical part of the exhaust pipe, which is displayed on the street, you just need to make it higher. Here you can also install a deflector or a protective cap.
Sometimes the installation of the supply pipe for some reason is not possible. In this case, it is recommended to leave the door slightly open to allow fresh air entering the garage to move to the basement. The lack of fresh air will make useless all efforts to organize an effective exhaust from the cellar in the garage.
If the garage is heated, condensation may occur on the chimney in the winter. To prevent icing of the pipe install a special glass for condensate.For unheated garage this measure is not required. Products and items that are stored in the cellar should be placed no closer than half a meter from the inlet in the winter time, otherwise they may freeze.
The inspection pit is a small object, so it is usually not provided for separate ventilation for it. And yet it is worth taking care of a good flow of air. To do this, on the other side of the viewing pit, which faces the air inlet of the garage ventilation, you need to make a gap of about 10-15 cm. You can slightly open the two sides of the pit in this way.
From the side of the hood also need to make such a gap, but it should be twice already. For the sake of security, you can cover these slots in some places with boards. When installing the car, you need to make sure that it does not overlap the exhaust slot, because it is dangerous for the vehicle.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Interesting and detailed information on the ventilation of the garage is given in this video:
This video shows how an exhaust duct fan works:
Here you can see the experience of creating a homemade hood for the garage, made of improvised means:
To organize a quality hood in the garage is not so difficult. You need to choose the right system and install it, or improve an existing ventilation option. This will positively affect the condition of the car, and the health of the owners of the garage.