Waterproofing the bathroom in the hands: a comparative review of materials + assembly instructions
In the bathroom, the degree of humidity is constantly increased. This has to be taken for granted and abandoned the useless attempts to fight "with the elements." The only thing that can and should be done is to neutralize as much as possible the negative effect of moisture on building structures and materials.
To do this, waterproofing of the bathroom is carried out, the use of which is mandatory for all bathrooms.
Is it possible to do without waterproofing?
It may seem that the arrangement of insulation in the bathroom is a waste of effort and money. Proponents of this viewpoint motivate the position that ceramic tiles, which most often decorate bathrooms, are completely waterproof. This, indeed, is true, but the tile joints are excellent in moisture penetration, as are cracks and chips on the tile itself.Even if these cracks are microscopic.
Do not be sure, and as a sanitary appliances. Sooner or later, malfunctions can appear in them, and water will rush to the floor or, worse, accumulate under the equipment little by little, gradually destroying the floor covering or wall. That is why experts strongly recommend the arrangement of high-quality waterproofing bathroom. What is meant by this?
First you need to isolate the floor. This is done so that water cannot penetrate into the floor slab and seep into the apartment or cellar below. And also to ensure that moisture does not accumulate at the base, does not destroy it, and does not provoke the growth of mold and mildew. Ideal floor waterproofing looks like a kind of “trough” made of a special material.
It is applied to the floor of the bathroom with a partial approach to the walls. The height of this approach is of the order of 20-25 cm. The insulating “trough” must be completely waterproof. But that's not all. The walls of the bathroom also need insulation, even if they are covered with tiles. As already mentioned, the tile joints and cracks perfectly pass moisture, which will flow down the surface of the wall and accumulate in the most inappropriate places.
To prevent this unpleasant phenomenon, it is necessary to equip waterproofing on the most "dangerous" areas. They are located in the immediate vicinity of the sink, bathtub and other sanitary equipment. In some cases, experts recommend waterproofing the ceiling of the bathroom. This is necessary if the bathroom is located in a high-rise building and there are more apartments above it.
Materials for waterproofing: a brief overview of the main types
In hardware stores, the range of insulation materials is very, very wide. All of them can be divided into several basic types, with each of which we take a closer look.
This is a large group of roll insulation, which includes materials with a variety of properties. Initially, the basis for them was cardboard, which was applied several layers containing bitumen compositions. They ensure the waterproof material. Such coatings include ruberoid, asphalt and the like. Their main drawback is a relatively short lifetime.
Later, fiberglass or fiberglass began to be chosen as the basis of insulation. This significantly increased the service life, but slightly complicated the installation of materials. Because in the process of laying such coatings may crack. Roll insulation can be mounted in different ways:
- By fastening. This option is used less frequently than others. Its essence lies in the fact that the panel is fixed on the warmed base with screws with plastic telescopic devices in the form of fungi with wide caps. To install the base is first drilled, which is very time consuming and not reliable.
- Overlay. In this case, special equipment is used: construction hair dryers or gas burners. With their help, workers melt the bottom layer of the coating, and then lay it on the right place. Time-consuming and rather dangerous method, which is not recommended for use on the premises.
- Sticking. The material is glued to a previously prepared base. The adhesive may be applied to the substrate or, more conveniently, already on the insulating coating.Most manufacturers produce so-called self-adhesive insulation, for laying which is enough to remove the protective film from the back of the adhesive side.
Of all the methods described, sticking is considered the easiest. It is possible that the fusing provides the best quality insulation, but only experts can competently perform such laying. When heated, the cloth becomes very elastic and is easily torn. It is also important to prevent the coating from overheating, otherwise it will melt and become unusable. In addition, bitumen fumes are very toxic. Working with him indoors is dangerous.
The advantages of the insulation insulation quite a lot. After laying it forms a plastic sheet, allowing the base to "breathe." For this reason, such materials are widely used for insulating wooden floors. Elastic material quietly transfers all the movements of natural wood and at the same time maintains its integrity. In addition, the insulating layer of roll materials is very well retained on the base.
Another significant advantage is quick readiness for further work. The insulating insulation does not need time for drying; almost immediately after its installation, you can proceed to the following technological operations. The cost of such materials, which is also important, is very low.
Of the disadvantages of the main is the complexity of installation. Even self-adhesive material is quite difficult to properly put, given that before installation, you will need to carefully prepare the base.
Coating insulation materials
They can be considered the very first means used as protection against water. Initially, these were vegetable and animal oils and fats, which were coated with the protected surfaces. Over time, their composition changed radically, but the principle of deposition remained. Modern coating materials are available in a variety of forms. These are mastics, various pastes or dry mixes.
The last before application must be diluted in a compatible polymer emulsion or in pure water.The manufacturer must attach to their products instruction on the preparation of the working mixture, to deviate from which is not recommended. The composition of dry mixes is varied, respectively, and the properties of the insulating material are different. For pastes and mastics preparation for application is not required.
The formulations are sold in hermetically sealed containers. However, unlike dry mixes, their shelf life is rather limited. This should be known, and not buy material "for the future." The main characteristic of coating waterproofing is its consistency. The hiding power of the material depends on this, which affects the number of applied layers, the properties and scope of application of the coating.
Liquid solutions are applied with a layer thickness of about a millimeter. It is clear that it will take at least three or four such layers in order to obtain high-quality insulation. Important note. When applying a liquid, each subsequent layer is applied in the direction perpendicular to the previous one. The only way to achieve the absence of possible gaps on the surface. For the application of a liquid solution they take a brush, preferably a wide one, or a sheet.
Pastes or mastics are more dense.It is impossible to lay them with a brush, for such coatings a notched trowel is used. The height of the insulation layer applied in this way is usually about 3 mm. This makes it possible to reduce the number of layers, two will be enough, a maximum of three. When laying mastic or paste it is quite acceptable and it is even desirable to reinforce the surface with a special mesh.
Cloth stack between two layers of coating. A significant drawback of coating pastes and mastic is considered to be a rather long curing time of the coating. Given that each subsequent layer of material can be laid only after the previous one has hardened, the process of applying waterproofing is significantly delayed. In rare cases, the manufacturer allows the third insulating layer to be applied on the wet second one. This point needs to be clarified in the instructions.
Insulating impregnating compositions
One of the latest achievements in the field of insulation materials. The compositions have a completely different principle of action.They do not cover the base with a protective layer, but react with it. The compositions penetrate into the porous base to a depth of 120 mm, and then solidify, forming needle-like crystals. The base of each such crystal is rotated in the direction of the supposed water flow.
Thus, each of the surface pores is sealed with a solution. At the same time, the base acquires a new monolithic structure, which does not peel off, does not crumble, and does not crack. Impregnation is very easy to apply. They are placed on the base with a regular brush. The composition has a liquid consistency, is applied in a thin layer, so it does not affect the height of the room at all.
The manufacturer produces impregnations, which may include not only active substances, but also cement mixtures or sand. In any case, they should be applied exclusively on a wet basis. This is the main condition that the impregnation penetrates deep into the coating. The main disadvantage of impregnating materials - limited scope.They work well on concrete foundations, gypsum and lime plaster, FSB with low water resistance.
However, it is completely powerless on brick and cement plaster. Absolute contraindication for the use of impregnating mixtures - 3 and above the base crack resistance group. Before buying it is important to clarify the possibility of using the composition you like on an existing basis. Another disadvantage is the high cost of such insulating materials.
What kind of waterproofing to choose for your bathroom?
This is a rather complicated question that cannot be answered unambiguously. The choice of insulation type depends on many factors. First of all, it is material of overlappings. If it is a tree, it is advisable to use glued insulation. Any type is suitable for concrete.
It is also important to understand how serious repairs are planned. If there is an opportunity and desire to perform the highest quality waterproofing, it is better to choose a pasting, laid under the screed, followed by treatment with coating compounds.
Such a tandem will provide guaranteed protection against any leakage for more than one decade. However, this is the most time consuming option. If you plan a relatively small repair, you can put only oblazochnoy waterproofing. It is worth considering the number of floors in the building. If the bathroom is located on the first floor of a private house, it will be enough to isolate the floor and walls. For high-rise buildings will also need work on the ceiling.
When choosing a material, it is also important to consider the possibility of changing the height of the room. If this is highly undesirable or impossible, it is worth using impregnating or liquid coating insulation. For work with a floor any of existing types of materials can be chosen. It is worth considering the configuration of the room. The rolled panel will be extremely difficult to lay in the bathroom of complex shape. For walls and ceilings only impregnating and painting compositions are used.
Methods of conducting insulation work
Options for how to properly do waterproofing in the bathroom with their own hands, there are many. We will consider the main points, without which it is impossible to obtain high-quality coverage.
We carry out the preparatory work
After the material for insulation is selected, you can proceed to the preparation of the base. The most difficult work on the floor. Especially if you plan to lay the insulation under the screed. We start with cleaning the base. If repairs are being made in an already used bathroom, you will have to completely dismantle and remove all the equipment, remove the floor covering and remove the old screed.
The latter is the most difficult, but necessary. As a rule, the old screed is not in the best condition. It is likely contaminated, cracked and crumbled. You can, of course, use it as a base for surface insulation, but then you have to put a new screed directly on the old one. This will be an extra significant load on the floor, in addition, the floor will rise, which is highly undesirable for the bathroom.
According to the rules, the floor in the bathroom should be lower than in any other rooms, which is an additional protection in case of a possible “flood”.The old screed is disassembled using special tools: punch, angle grinder or concrete hammer. After removal of all debris, an inspection of the opened base is performed.
All irregularities, chips and cracks are sealed and rubbed. Remove the dust and then carry out the treatment with a special fungicidal composition. This is necessary to prevent the appearance of fungus. Next is the priming. It is best to apply two or three coats of a suitable primer.
Works are performed with the obligatory capture of the lower part of the walls. It is grounded about 30 cm up from the level of the base. It is advisable to slightly smooth the corners between the floor and the wall, so it will be easier to lay an insulating sheet.
Features of laying rolled insulation
For work inside the building, it is optimal to choose self-adhesive insulation. With that which keeps within on glue, it will be more difficult to work. First, the material is cut out. It is cut into sheets, the length of which includes overlaps on the walls. In addition, you need to remember about the overlap, which must be present when laying the roll cover. Their average value is 10 cm.if not, the manufacturer indicates this in the instructions.
Roll out the cloths on the bathroom floor and leave them until the next day for the material to level out. Now you can start laying. From the upper edge of the cloth retreat the distance corresponding to the amount of entry on the wall and put the floor on the base. Gently pry off the edge of the sheet and remove the protective film, at the same time pressing down the insulation in the floor.
We do everything slowly, carefully. For a better pressing of the cloth use a roller. After the first panel is laid, you can stack the second, not forgetting about the necessary overlap. Important note. When cutting and subsequent installation it is necessary to take into account that the joint of two canvases should not fall on the section of the wall and floor interface. Otherwise, inevitably a leakage will appear with time, and the tightness of the insulation will be broken.
Special attention is paid to engineering communications. Holes are cut out for removing pipes into the insulating sheet.In order for the insulation to “sit down” tightly, their diameter must be smaller than that of pipes. All joints of the plates and the edges of the resulting waterproof “trough” are thoroughly coated with mastic of bitumen and again with effort we roll the entire coating with a roller. If the canvas does not stretch well, you can warm it slightly with a building hairdryer.
Method of applying a coating insulation
Coating insulation is easy to apply. If the work will be carried out using a dry mixture, first you need to accurately prepare the working solution according to the instructions. It should be remembered that after a relatively short time, it will harden and become unusable. Therefore, bred material in small portions. If you plan to use the already prepared coating, you only need to open the bank.
The prepared base is slightly moistened to improve the adhesion of materials, and then proceed to the application of the solution. It is advisable to move strictly in one direction, when applying the second layer, the composition is laid in perpendicular to the first direction. Do not forget that the first layer should completely dry before laying the second.All corners and joints are additionally processed with a special waterproofing tape.
It is placed in a wet mastic and forcefully pressed into the material. Before applying the last layer on the base, a reinforcing mesh can be laid, which is then covered with a continuous layer of mastic. The composition is allowed to completely dry and harden. At this time, you need to protect it from possible dust and debris. Even small particles of pollution will spoil the quality of the finished coating.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to waterproof the bathroom using a coating
What is penetrating waterproofing
How to work with adhesive insulation materials
The bathroom, like no other, needs to be properly executed waterproofing. High humidity and water drips are extremely dangerous for building materials and finishing coatings. In addition, there is always a risk of an emergency, which may result in the flooding of someone else's apartment or own basement. Only the correct choice of material and its high-quality installation will relieve all problems associated with excessive humidity for a long time.