What is the endometrium?
Women's health depends on many factors, inincluding the state of the individual components of the internal genital organs. For example, the state of the endometrium affects the menstrual cycle, as well as the outlook and course of pregnancy. Let's try to understand what the endometrium is, what role it plays in the body and what pathology of the endometrium exists.
Endometrium: what does this medical term mean? This is the name of the mucous membrane that lining the uterus from the inside.
Endometrium consists of a cover and an epithelium,basic substance and stroma. In addition, this mucosa is abundantly supplied with blood vessels. In the endometrium, two main layers are distinguished: functional and basal.
The main function of the endometrium is the creationfavorable conditions for the onset and course of pregnancy. It is to it that the embryo is attached after fertilization of the egg. With the onset of pregnancy in the endometrium, blood supply increases due to an increase in the number (growth) of blood vessels, and the number of glands increases. The vessels of this layer enter the placenta, which ensures the supply of the fetus with oxygen and nutrition.
If fertilization does not occur, then partepithelium exfoliates and removes from the uterus and from the body an unfertilized ovum along with menstrual blood. Therefore, the second major function of the endometrium is performed in the menstrual cycle. From its condition depends the cyclicity of critical days and the abundance of menstruation. You can read more about this in the article What are Critical Days.
The state of the endometrium
Endometrial tissue is sensitive to hormonalchanges. From the phases of the menstrual cycle depends on its thickness. So, for example, it is in the last phase of the cycle that the thickness of the endometrium reaches its maximum (in norm) values due to enrichment with blood supply and glands. In this condition, the uterus is ready for implantation of the fetal egg, which occurs when the egg is fertilized.
If pregnancy does not occur, functionalpart of the endometrium is rejected, and after the end of menstruation, the cycle resumes, the mucosa is restored and the thickness of the endometrium is increased. Throughout the cycle, the thickness of the endometrium changes:
- 1 - 2 day - up to 9 mm;
- 3 - 4 day - up to 5 mm;
- 5 - 7 day - up to 9 mm;
- 8 - 10 day - up to 10 mm;
- 11 - 18 day - up to 13 mm;
- 19 - 23 day - up to 14 mm;
- 24 - 27 - up to 13 mm.
Thus, normally the thickness of the endometrium should be from 5 to 14 mm. If it is less or more, then this indicates a pathology of the endometrium.
The main pathologies of the endometrium:
- Thickening is hyperplasia.
- Thinning - hypoplasia.
- Cystic endometrium - abnormal tissue growth.
Hypoplasia is manifested as a stable thinthe state of the endometrium without its cyclic hormonal thickening. It can be caused by a violation in the receptors of estrogens, as well as inadequate blood supply and chronic endometritis.
Hyperplasia occurs with excessive proliferationendometrium. Often accompanies chronic inflammatory processes of female genital organs, as well as uterine myoma and genital endometriosis. The emergence of hyperplasia promotes diabetes, obesity and hypertension.
Cystic endometrium of the uterus. What is it? This pathology occurs in the process of cell division anomalies. It occurs against the background of hormonal disorders and under the influence of antigenic stimuli, that is, it is a reaction to infectious diseases.