Where did they invent the paper?
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The paper that we used to see and take for granted did not always exist. But its history brings us back to distant times, to the country where the paper was invented.
Where and who invented the paper
The material for writing appeared much earlier,than paper. Ancient Egyptians used papyrus for writing. They took his stems, peeled and straightened the plant. Then such strips were folded crosswise, glued, pressed, and dried. It was an excellent material for writing. How did the paper appear?
According to the Chinese chronicles, the paper was invented by Cai Lun in 105 AD. He received the paper as follows:
- First rastolok fiber mulberry, rags, hemp and wood ash.
- I added water to this mixture.
- He made a form from a wooden frame and a sieve from bamboo.
- I laid out the resulting mixture on this form, smoothed it with stones and set it to dry in the sun.
Thus, the Chinese dynasty dignitaryHan received strong sheets of paper. After such an invention, Tsai Lun, the process of making paper was improved over time. For strength in the mixture of materials, starch, glue and even natural dyes were added.
There are other sources that say whoinvented the paper. The fact is that already in 1957 in China, in Shanxi Province, a tomb in the Baotya cave was discovered. Small pieces of paper were found in this tomb. After the conducted researches it was established that the production of these sheets of paper falls on the 2nd century BC. But one thing remains true, in which country the paper was invented - the paper first appeared in China. But for a long time the emperor of China kept the method of making paper in secret. He announced that the one who told this stranger to a stranger would be severely punished. For a long time the masters of China did not disclose this secret. And the paper was distributed all over the world through Chinese traders who traveled far to the north and west. In the city of Samarkand in 751 the Arabs discovered the secret of making paper, which they transported to Spain. From there the active process of transferring the experience of making paper has already started. It turns out that it took more than one century to make the paper spread all over the world.
In the second half of the 17th century,The machine, which opened up great opportunities for paper production. These machines were called rolls, which allowed to produce a huge amount of paper. The problem of growth of such production consisted in a manual cast of paper. And in 1799 in France, N.L. Robert created a papermaking machine, where the tide already occurred not manually, but mechanically, with the help of a constantly moving mesh. But this mechanism was not patented in France, but in England in 1806, the brothers Fourdrinier. The almost automatic operation of the paper making machine was already known in the 19th century. The paper industry became highly mechanized in the 20th century.
Paper in Russia
As for our country, for a long time (about200 years) in Russia used imported paper. And its manufacture began only in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that the one who invented the paper lived in 105 AD. The first document on paper was drawn up in 1340, and the own paper production in Russia falls at the time of the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Near Moscow, on the river Uche, the first paper mill in Russia was built. On the papers from this mill, special distinctive watermarks were applied. By the way, printing appeared at the same time, certainly, not by accident. And further development in the paper business was already under Peter I, who made paper mills everywhere. Began the production of food, postal, Alexandrian (for state correspondence), gray and blue paper. Our state already needed all this.